Lung cancer (Animated)
- 1. INTRODUCTIONWhy What How
- 2.CancerWHAT IS LUNG CANCER (Bronchogenic) Or Carcinoma Genetic damage DEATH
- 3.AT MOLECULAR LEVELGenetic changes include mutation of key regulatory genes, changesin protein products, and changes in gene expression.As changes accumulate, cells become more abnormal and cancer progresses There are over 100 genes known to be associated with the development of lung cancer. Ras Myc Rb retinoblastoma gene (Rb) TP53 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) , erbB1, HER1
- 4.HOW COMMON IS LUNG CANCER?WHO reports OVER 1.1 million people die of lung cancer each year.
- 5.RISK FACTORS Carcinogens 85% Smokers Lung cancer Non smoker 60 6 1 Smoking 300,000 deaths each year
- 6.RISK FACTORS Smoking Ten years after quitting, lung cancer risk drops to a level that is only 20-50% of the risk experienced by those who continue to smoke.
- 7.RISK FACTORS side-stream smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, Second-Hand Smokepassive smoke.The lungs of anyone who breathes in air that contains tobacco smoke areexposed to its carcinogens. EXPOSED RISK OF LUNG CANCER Children
- 8.RISK FACTORS Environmental Carcinogens Asbestos Radon Radon is a naturally occurring, radioactive gas. It is odourless and tasteless. Formed from the radioactive decay of uranium. Underground miners.
- 9.Arsenic (naturally) organic inorganic (carcinogen) Insecticides, weed killers, rat poison, Fungicides, wood preservatives, Paints, leather industry. Chromium • Natural element, odourless and tasteless. • Chromium (VI) or hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic. • Chrome plating, Stainless steel welding
- 10.Nickel Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHsA group of over 100 different chemicals thatare formed during the incomplete burning of coal,oil, gas, garbage.Diesel fuel exhaust is a prevalent source of PAHs.Some PAHs are used to make medicines, dyes, plastics, and pesticides.
- 11.Other Environmental Lung Carcinogensbis(chloromethyl)ether, Suspected lung carcinogens includechloromethyl methyl ether, acrylonitrile, cadmium,ionizing radiation (x-rays), beryllium,gamma radiation, lead,mustard gas, ferric oxide dust.soots, tars,mineral oils,vinyl chloride.
- 12.Among men, black men were diagnosed with lung cancer mostoften, followed by white, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/PacificIslander, and Hispanic men A g e Genetic Factors
- 13.LUNG CANCER GROWTH Very SlowIn Average, it takes 8-15 years to grow 1 centimetre in diameter.But, they have the ability to spread or metastasize to other parts of thebody early in their growth.This process is called early micrometastasis, metastasis that isnot detectable by ordinary means.
- 14.LUNG CANCER SPREADSpread of the tumour can occur by the lymphatic vessels to lymphnodes located within the lung, mediastinum and thorax.Most cancer cells that enter the bloodstream die.If spread by the blood stream, it can lead to deposits of tumour in theliver, opposite lung, bone and brain.The process of determining whether lung cancerhas spread beyond the original tumour is calledstaging.
- 15.TYPES OF LUNG CANCER A cancer arising in the 20% epithelial tissue of the 80% skin or of the lining of Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) the internal organs.Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large cell carcinoma SCLC and NSCLC have different patterns of growth and spread. They are also treated differently.
- 16.oat cell carcinomaSmall Cell Lung Cancer Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma Abnormally small Grows faster Spread fasterSCLC tumours are often located near thecentre of the lung.
- 17.Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Similar growth patterns and are treated
similarly. Each has variants or subtypes Adenocarcinoma Have a glandular appearance.Most of these tumours produce a thick fluid called mucin. Variants are acinar adenocarcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma, and other mixed subtypes.Tumours are most often in the outer regions of the lungs. Mostly associated with scarring of the lung tissue.
- 18.Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Epidermoid carcinoma)Squamous Cell Carcinoma Squamous cells are large and flat. These tumours often produce a substance called keratin. Variants of SCC include Papillary SCC, clear cell SCC, small cell SCC, and basaloid SCC. Central area of the lung.
- 19.Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Large Cell Carcinoma (LCC) largest The cells are generally highly undifferentiated or immature in appearance. Variants are including clear cell LCC, basaloid LCC, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Any part of the lung. unrecognizableThe prognosis for large cell carcinoma is generallyless favourable than for other forms of NSCLC.
- 20.Carcinoid TumoursArise from neuroendocrine cells. (specialized nerve cells thatproduce hormones)Although it is uncommon, they secrete high levels ofhormones which can lead to symptoms such as bouts ofdiarrhoea.TYPICAL(a) and ATYPICAL(b) variants.Carcinoids account for 1-5% of all lung tumours.They do not metastasize.Tumours can often be cured by surgical removal.Atypical carcinoid tumours are more aggressive with a greater tendency for distant metastasis and recurrence thantypical carcinoid tumours.
- 21.Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) 75% occur in the pleura of the lungs. MPM is a rare form of primary cancer. THREE TYPES Epithelioid type Sarcomatoid Mixed/biphasic mesotheliomas. Asbestos is the predominant cause of MPM.Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for localized MPM.
- 22.Stages of non-small cell lung cancerStage 1Stage 2 STAGESCaner is only in lungs not in lymph glands. 2A Cancer is small but it spreads to lymph glands. 2BStage 3 3A 3 Cancer is slightly larger and it spreads to lymph glands. factors determine stage: Caner cells have spread to the lymph glands furthest away from the affected lung. • 3B TheOne more tumor in the lung or other area in chest such as primary size and characteristics of the original or heart tumour. (or) Cancer cells are present in fluid around the lungs.Stage 4 Cancer spread to various parts of body such as liver or bone. • Spread of the cancer to regional lymph nodes. Stages of Small cell lung cancerLimited • TheCancer cells are present only inof distant metastases. presence or absence one lung.Extensive Cancer cells are spread to other parts of the body.
- 24.DIAGNOSISA chest X-ray is one of the most useful examination tools.CT (computerized tomography)MRIPET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans can be used to look at lung cancersCells must be examined under a microscope. Cells may come from sputum samples, pleural fluid (fluid on the lungs), brushings or washings of the bronchi Bronchoscopy. A needle biopsy may also be used for diagnosis.Mediastinoscopy and mediastinotomyThoracotomy
- 25.TREATMENTStandard treatments for lung cancer may include Surgery Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) Chemotherapy. Early lung cancers may be treated with a laser therapy. Most patients have more than one type of treatment (combination of therapies).Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Photo chemotherapy or photo radiation therapy PDT is the use of drugs that are sensitive to light (photo-sensitizing drugs).